Minor Minerals


Minor minerals have been defined in Section 3 of the mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Act, 1957 and comprise mostly such minerals that are locally available and have local use. These are not used in any major industries. Most of the building and construction materials fall in this category. In the State Uttar Pradesh following minerals have been included in the category of Minor Minerals.

  • Limestone (for lime burning etc)
  • Marble or marble chips
  • Brick Earth
  • Saltpeter
  • Building Stone
    • Slabs and Ashlar, Sized Dimensional Stones (Sand Stone, Quartzite)
    • Millstone and Hand Chakki (Sand Stone, Quartzite)
    • Khandas and Boulders
      • Granite and Dolostone sized upto 25*25*25 cm
      • Sandstone and Quartzite sized upto 25*25*25 cm
    • Gitti Ballast
      • One meter or large
      • Sandstone Quartzite
    • Granite sized dimensional stone
      • One meter or large
      • Smaller than one meter
  • Morrum
    • Available in river bed
    • Red morrum generated due to weathering of hills
  • Sand other than ordinary sand used for specified purpose
    • Ist category-as specified for the mentioned river and their catchments in Schedule -II
    • 2nd category for other rivers and their catchments
  • Kankar
  • Bajri
  • Ordinary earth
  • Any other minor mineral

Minor minerals occur in all the districts of the State. Limestone and Marble were earlier mined in Dehradun and Sonbhadra districts, but they are no longer mined now.

Brick Earth is found in all the districts, except the hilly districts. The earth used should be a loam The earth is collected by strip mining the ground in 2-6 meter deep pits, generally in the agricultural land.

Building Stone- Southern part of U.P. known as Bundelkhand through the following districts provided the building stone.

Agra- sandstone- Patia, chauka, gitti, ashlar

Prayagraj- sandstone and quartzite- soling, gitti, patia, chakki, ashlar

Mahoba- Hamirpur, Jalaun, Jhansi- Granite- Khanda, gitti, block

Lalitpur- Granite, sandstone- Khanda, gitti, block, patia, chauka, ashlar

Mathura- quartzite- khanda gitti

Mirzapur- sandstone- khanda, gitti, patia, chauka, ashalar, stonewares

Sonbhadra- dolomite, granite, sandstone-khanda, gitti

Chandauli- sandstone- Gneiss, schist, quartzite- khanda, gitti, soling, patal.

Sand and Morrum

Sand is available in all the rivers in the State. The following list gives the name of river in the district with sand deposit. The coarse and clean sands without flaky minerals are preferred due to higher strength and lower construction costs and termed as Category 1 sand. Sand occurs in the following districts. Prayagraj- Yamuna and Ganga, Firozabad- Yamuna, Ghaziabad- Yamuna, Varanasi- Ganga and karamnasa, Gorakhpur- Ghaghra and Dandi, Mau-Ghaghra, Unnao- Ganga and Sai, Ballia- Ganga, Muzaffarnagar- Ganga and Yamuna, Ambedkarnagar- Ghaghra, Basti- Ghaghra and Kuano, Sidharthnagar- Rapti, Ghazipur- Ganga, Hamirpur- Yamuna and Betwa, Mirzapur- Ganga, Agra- Yamuna and Chambal, Bhadohi- Ganga, Azamgarh- Ghaghra and Jamin, Kanpur Nagar & Dehat- Ganga, Etawah- Yamuna and Chambal, Ayodhya- Ghaghra, Mahrajganj- Rapti, Gonda- Ghaghra, Bahraich-Ghangra, Category II sands occur in Bulandshahar- Ganga, Mathura- Yamuna, Lucknow- Gomti, Pratapgarh- Ganga and Sai, Barabanki- Ghaghra and Gomti, Sultanpur- Gomti, Sitapur- Gomti, Saryu, pilibhit- Garra and Dehua, Badaun- Ganga, Jaunpur-Gomti and Sai, Hardoi- Garra, Ganga and Gomti, Shahjahanpur- Garra nadi, Moradabad- Ramganga Raebareli- Ganga and Sai Etah- Ganga Bareilly- Ramganga, Kanpur Dehat- Yamuna, Farukhabad- Ganga and Kali, Rampur- Ramganga, Mainpuri- Yamuna, Aligarh- Ganga, Meerut- Yamuna Deoria- choti Gandak and Ghaghra

Morrum is found in the rivers flowing through Jhansi, Lalitpur, Jalaun, Hamirpur, Mahoba, Fatehpur, Banda and Sonbhadra districts. Most of the morrum is derived from the weathering and disintegration of granitic rocks. Another type of morrum called ‘Red Morrum’ is in fact laterite soils found on the elevated ground comprising old weathering surfaces. These are used for spreading on kuchha roads.

Kankar is found 1-3 meters below the ground in the central and eastern districts of the State. It has been mined on a large scale in the past and was used in building canals, roads and making lime, but its mining stopped some 10-15 years back.

Salt petre or Shora, locally known as ‘Lona’, occurs in a mixed state with soil around areas of older habitation in the central districts Unnao, Kanpur Dehat, Etah, Mainpuri, Farrukhabad, Agra, Mathura, Aligarh, Etawah etc and the persons of Lonia community make crude niter/ kalmi shora from Saltpeter, this activity is no more economically viable.

Reh Generally occurs in the central districts. These occur in the drier portions, where there is no good outward drainage, the soil becomes water logged and the accumulated salts are drawn upto the surface to appear as efflorescence. It is used for making native glass (Kanch), saltpeter and for curing hides and skin, in tanning leather, for preparing soap and for dying and washing clothes. It is also used by local tobacconist for kneading with tobacco to give tone and consistency to the finished product.

Sand and brick earth are used in building and construction purposes.

Bajri & boulder- found in the river beds of  Saharanpur, Bijnor,  Lakhimpur, Bahraich, Sravasti and Balrampur districts and occur mixed with sand.